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 The Art Engine Room

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PostSubject: The Art Engine Room   Fri May 25, 2007 11:43 am

-please be quiet and dust your shoes at the door-creatures are sleeping and someone is thinking...

http://i16.servimg.com/u/f16/11/28/60/29/back_t10.jpg

taken from wiki

Collage novel is a form of artist's book approaching closely (but preceding) the Graphic novel. Images are selected from other publications and collaged together following a theme or narrative (not necessarily linear).

The Dadaist and surrealist Max Ernst (1891-1976) is generally credited as the inventor of the collage novel. He published the collage novels "Les Malheurs des immortels" (1922), "La Femme 100 T-22tes" (1929), "Rêve d'une petite fille..." (1930) and "Une Semaine de Bonte" (1933-1934).

The text for "Les Malheurs des immortels" was written by Paul Éluard.

See also: cut-up technique



Artists' books (also called bookworks) are works of art realized in the form of a book. They are usually published in small editions, though sometimes they are one-of-a-kind objects. Artists' books have employed a wide range of forms, including scrolls, fold-outs or loose items contained in a box.

Although artists have been active in printing and book production for centuries, the artist's book is primarily a 20th century form.


Why don’t oil and water mix together/and the violet cycle

the violet cycle links all the raw data together. underlined sections
or embolden sections have more importance.

The Note Sections are ideas at how “Exos” could shape…and to form
part of the back story of The Lab Animals.

taken from:
http://www.chemistryquestion.com/English/Questions/SpecialistChemistry/15_water_oil.html

Why don't water and oil mix together? I think that the answer would be "because separating from each other is thermodynamically more stable than mixing with each other". However, I cannot understand why this happens from the molecular interaction point of view?

Sam Peel (Aug 2005)


Answer:
Dr. Earle Waghorne, who is actually studying solution chemistry, kindly answered the question above:


You're correct that the free energy is lower for the separate oil and water than for a solution of one in the other.

At a molecular level the explanation is, in part, well understood and in another less so.

The simple bit is the result of the type of interactions between the molecules:
Water and oil
Schoolscience, with permission

Molecular interaction
Water is held together by hydrogen bonds and can interact efficiently with anything that has well developed permanent charges; that's why it can dissolve electrolytes so well.

Oils on the other hand are non polar, simply because the difference between the electronegativities of H and C are so small. These molecules interact by London (Forces) (of van der Waals) dispersion forces and are induced dipole - induced dipole interactions. These interactions become stronger as more molecules are bound together, at least up to some critical size. These interactions are also strongest between molecules with similar polarizabilities.

The interactions between the oil and water molecules are not strong, the oil can't hydrogen bond as it is non -polar and water can't form strong London forces to the oil; it has a different polarizability.

Size of molecules
Now, a second part to this is that water molecules are much smaller than most other molecules, so to accommodate oil molecules, many water molecules have to have their hydrogen bonds broken.

Related topics
There is a further, somewhat less well understood, part to this story. When water has to surround non-polar parts of molecules it seems to form cage like structures, where the water molecules on the surface of the cavity form 4 hydrogen bonds to neighboring water molecules. These structures can be seen in the crystal structures of certain hydrated electrolytes, called "clathrates". In solution this is called hydrophobic hydration and is still a subject of research.

Perhaps most amazing is the formation of "gas hydrates" where, for example, methane + water mixtures form solids. You can find about these by searching the web for "gas hydrate"

"Water and oil" and biology
The most interesting place where this difference between non-polar "hydrophobic" and polar "hydrophilic" molecules is in biology where nature uses these two in a myriad of ways: fats, which should stay in place, are oily, while sugars, that need to be moved quickly around the body, are very hydrophilic; cell walls are formed by amphiphiles, one end hydrophilic and the other oily (hydrophobic), trans membrane proteins are anchored in the cell wall by having hydrophobic sidegroups, globular proteins have large amounts of hydrophobic sidegroups that make them fold with these on the inside, away from the water.

It is even believed that prion diseases, like mad cow disease, result from the proteins misfolding, with their hydrophobic groups on the outside, these then become "sticky" towards other prion proteins, which also misfold and stick to the first one, eventually leading to the formation of the characteristic plaques found in these diseases. This is likely to be in many biochemistry textbooks but again can be found on the web.

Final words
I hope that this answers the question and, perhaps, gives some sense of the importance of the apparently trivial observation that "oil and water don't mix".


Acknowledgement
We would like to thank Dr. Earle Waghorne for his kind answer.

OIL AND WATER DON'T MIX
One of the most basic rules students learn in science class is that oil and water don’t mix. Nowhere was this lesson more painfully learned than in Prince William Sound, Alaska, where the Exxon Valdez spilled several million gallons of crude oil into the water, damaging the pristine environment and killing thousands of seabirds and wildlife.



To protect public health and aquatic life from the effects of oil spills, the Clean Water Act has strict rules governing the discharge of oil into our waterways.
But the oil industry, emboldened by the Bush administration’s close ties with big business, is now challenging Clean Water Act protections for streams and wetlands. They are arguing that protections should apply only to waterways that can support boats or ships. If the oil industry wins in court, more than half the nation’s waters—ranging from neighborhood creeks and fishing holes to entire drinking water supplies—could lose federal protection. And once oil companies get permission to dump into streams and wetlands, it is only a matter of time before other industries follow suit.
Earthjustice, on behalf of the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Sierra Club, has filed a motion to intervene in two cases filed by the oil industry against the EPA. Although the EPA is supposed to defend the Clean Water Act, the environmental groups are concerned the government agency will give into industry demands. Their concern is warranted considering that Bush administration officials are already in closed-door settlement discussions with the oil industry over these lawsuits, and have previously signaled their willingness to change regulations to limit Clean Water Act protections.


http://www.wherewelive.org/learn_more/case_oilwater.htm


Just the size of an oil tanker holds millions of gallons of crude oil.
Just think how much oil a burden machine could hold.
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PostSubject: Re: The Art Engine Room   Wed Jun 06, 2007 3:09 pm

AI DESIGN EXAMPLE

Problem Set 6
A Two-Player Game
Issued: April 8
Design Review: April 15-19
Specification change: April 20
Due: May 2, 11:59pm
Change Log
Updated: May 1, 11:15PM

This update is to clarify the submission instructions, please read this before you submit (or if you've already submitted read them and if you did something different please update your submission)

* You should not include the CM directory. This means that you will have to modify the ourstuff.cm file to exclude certain things that you cannot compile (aigame.sml, and the AI sml files). Also, if the file is not required for you to compile, you do not need to submit it. In other words, you don't need to submit the randomAI source unless you modify it to use something other than AIGame.
* To get the CM.make() to work in your root directory, you must submit a sources.cm file that compiles all your files (minus the GUI files). This means that you will have to move types.sml and player.sig into the root directory (you can move the files in src/ for submission, the restriction on moving these files was only for using the AI's). Alternatively you can modify the path in the CM files.
* Please submit the GIF directory as-is and also submit the GUI files in the root directory ,even if you didn't modify them. It will make it easier on us when we are grading.
* Before you submit you should test CM.make() after deleting the CM directory.

Updated: April 26, 06:00PM

AI's have been updated to work with pente. Sorry it took so long. New distributions available here:

* Windows users click here
* Linux users click here

Known Issues

* The StupidAI will not handle getting into draw conditions gracefully.

Updated: April 22, 11:55PM

Changed some small submission details and submission system is now online. Added section on the tournament (more details to come).
Updated: April 21, 6:15PM

The game signature changes along with updated UI files can be obtained off of the specification change page.
Overview

In PS 6, we are giving you more freedom to design. You will implement a game called Gomoku. Gomoku is similar to Tic-tac-toe but more complex; it is traditionally played on a 19×19 Go board, and the goal is to get five in a row. There are two players, one using black pieces and one using white pieces. The players take turns playing a single piece on the intersections of the board until one player has achieved a line of 5 or more of his own pieces in a horizontal, diagonal, or vertical row. Traditionally, the player who has the black pieces goes first. The rules of Gomoku are relatively simple; the strategies are not.
Your task

For this problem set you will have two main tasks:

1. Design and implement the game back end.
We are giving you a game ADT that you need to implement. You have a great deal of flexibility in redesigning and implementing this abstraction, but you will be required to justify your decisions in a design document. To make sure you are on the right track, you must present a design review to a TA the week of April 15. After the design review, we will issue a specification change you must incorporate into your design and implementation.
2. Design and implement an AI for the game.
You are given a signature for an AI module to implement. You have complete freedom for your implementation of the AI. Information about how AI usually works is given towards the end of this problem set.

The emphasis in this assignment is on correctness and on design. While you will implement an AI module, relatively few points are allocated to how well your AI plays. It's much more important that the various parts of the game work correctly.
Schedule

This assignment has several important milestones:

1. April 15-19: Design review meeting with a TA. (You will sign up for a 20-minute slot sometime this week.)
2. April 20: Change to problem specification released.
3. May 2: Submission of code and report.
4. May 10: Tournament! (optional, for bragging rights only, details TBA)

Assignment Scoring

Here is a rough breakdown of how points will be assigned on this problem set:
10% : Design review
25% : Design document
15% : Interface design
45% : Implementation correctness
5%: Coding style

Warning: If the code that you submit does not compile, we will deduct 50%, plus a tenth of a point per minute it takes us to get your code to compile (a good design document will help here!). Make sure your code works as the last step before submitting it, and make sure that you provide any instructions needed to make your code compile and operate.
Deliverables
Design review (April 15-19)

About halfway through the project you will be required to meet with a TA for a design review. This will happen the week of 4/15-4/19. Sign-up sheets will be posted on the door of Prof. Myers' office (Upson 4119C). The design review will consist of a 20-minute session where you will talk through your design of program.

You should bring a draft design document to the meeting. This document should include copies of the important interfaces that you have designed. Much of the design review will center on these interfaces and your ability to justify the decisions you have made. You should also have thought through important implementation issues and identified key data structures and algorithms that you plan to use. If your design is good, after the design review your task will be merely to implement the interfaces you have defined. You are not expected to bring your implementation to the review, although it is probably a good idea to have started on the implementation before the review.

Remember, you only have 20 minutes for the design review, which includes setup time and any questions the TA has for you, so budget your time accordingly. You will be graded on how effectively you can communicate that you have a good design in the time allotted. Plan ahead of time what you are going to say, and who is going to say it. We recommend aiming for a 10-minute presentation (do a dry run beforehand to find out how long it is!) and leaving 10 minutes for questions from your TA. If your explanation can be aided by drawing pictures, plan out what you will draw on the board.

If you find that you can't make your appointment, e-mail the TA that you have signed up with ahead of time and see if they can accommodate you.
Specification change (April 20)

After the last design review, the specification of the problem set will be revised. This change will not require extensive changes to your code (less than 100 lines of code) if you have thought ahead and have a good design. The specification change will be posted on the web page and to the newsgroup, and it will also appear in this space.


Click here for the project specification change.

Final submission (May 2)

You will hand in 2 files containing your code and documentation respectively:

1. All documentation and design document material in a single file. The format must be ASCII, PostScript, or PDF. These are the only formats we will accept. Furthermore, if you choose to change formats (if you submit a PDF and then decide you'd rather submit a text file), overwrite your old submission with something to the effect of "Please disregard this" and then submit your new design document. Otherwise we may read the wrong document.
2. All SML and signature files that you have used (including the ones that were in the distribution) in a zip file. This should be a self-contained package that we can unzip and compile without doing anything else. It should not include the CM directory (we will take points off if the CM directory is present). If you add any files other than the ones in the CM files, you must add those files to sources.cm. In other words, we should be able to type a CM.make() in the root directory and have that compile everything we need to compile (except for the GUI of course).

Design Document: Your design document should include at least the following sections:

* Overview of the project (1 page max)
* Any modifications made to the problem specification, with justification (1 page max)
* Any information we need to know in order to compile or run your project (1 page max)
* The interfaces you designed and any justification needed for the design (4 pages max)
* Testing strategy and description of selected test cases* (5 pages max)

The design document should be at most 12 pages long. We won't read anything beyond the 12-page point. You should focus on the parts of the design where you made interesting design choices. Note that this is a maximum, not a minimum, and 12 pages is more than enough for your purposes. (Your grade will go down if you fill the paper with meaningless comments.)
* Don't underestimate the importance of the testing strategy! A testing strategy is as much a part of a complete design as is the design and implementation of the code. Therefore, you must fully explain what your testing strategy was for both unit and integration testing -- also, of course, you should actually test using the strategy you describe. (Hint: representation invariants help!)
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PostSubject: Re: The Art Engine Room   Wed Jun 06, 2007 3:09 pm

Back End and AI Code: For the code part, we expect you to have a fully functional game ADT that is functionally correct, and a working AI. The AI need not be very good, but it should be able to beat the random and "stupid" AI's that we provide you.
Optional AI Tournament (May 10)

At the end of the semester, when we have received all of the projects, all groups that have implemented a correct AI may participate in a tournament against each other. Some members of the course staff will also submit entries to the tournament too! The student winner of this tournament (ignoring staff submissions) will win a prize and bragging rights, especially if it beats all of the staff submissions. The AI need not be the same as that submitted on May 2; you may improve it.
Details for the tournament

1. The tournament will be run with a time limit of 5 minutes per player for a game.
2. The tournament will be run on multiple P4 1.7 GHz machines with 512 MB of RAM each.
3. The tournament format has not been decided. We are currently considering a few different options, if you have a preference you can e-mail Hubert. Possible tournament formats:
* Round-robin with groups, winners put in a double-elimination round.
* Single-elimination, with quarterfinals onwards being best of 3 or 5.
* Straight double-elimination.
4. Seeding will be done randomly.
5. By submitting to the tournament, you give us the right to publish games to the web site that we think are interesting.

Submission instructions for AI Tournament

Before submitting, you need to register with us so that we can give you an unique ID to append to all your structure names so that there will be no naming collisions between structures used by different groups. E-mail Hubert with the subject line "CS312 Pente Tournament Registration" to register for the tournament (one person per group please!).

Your AI should conform to the PLAYER signature. If it does not, you will not be able to participate. Also, any calls that are to functions in the GAME signature should be to the structure "Game" (which is what our implementation will be called). This Game structure will be the referee, if you have a seperate structure that is used by your AI to keep track of the game state you should submit that.

The tournament AI should be submitted seperately from your regular project. If you are putting the AI in your regular project, you need to add it to both submissions.

You will submit a zipfile with only the necessary files needed for your AI. This should not include the following files:

* player.sig
* game.sig
* types.sml

There should also be a file "aisources.cm" submitted that is a CM file that compiles all of the files necessary to compile the AI. This "aisources.cm" file should not contain the implementation of your game file.

For example, if I wanted to submit RandomAI to the tournament, I would submit the file aisources.cm with the following contents:

Group is

smlnj-lib.cm
types.sml (* needed for compilation, but you can't change the contents *)
player.sig (* needed for compilation, but you can't change the contents *)
randomai.sml

Submisson for the tournament will be open until May 8th, 11:59PM. We will try to run the prelminaries on the 9th and will try to run the quarter-finals to the finals on the 10th.
Design Hints

Much of your grade for this problem set will be determined by the quality of your design. There are many good designs for this assignment. We are looking for a design that is modular, has well-designed and clear interfaces, and supports software maintenance, reuse, and extension. Because your game components implement a standard interface, we should be able to plug other groups' components into your program and have them work correctly.

We are looking for clear, concise, well-designed interface definitions as well. You should identify opportunities to define data abstractions. As usual, we expect you to provide abstraction functions and representation invariants where needed.

Software reuse and easy extensibility also tie in with both modular design and well-designed interfaces: if you have well-designed interfaces, they provide the right functionality so that you can reuse them at multiple points within the program, and are easily extensible. Part of the reason we are issuing the specification change is to encourage good, modular designs.

Note that these are not the only things you should take into account when you are designing the parts of this project (other examples of things to consider would be runtime, representation invariants, and memory usage). Whatever you consider, we expect this to be written up in the design document that is handed in along with the rest of the project. This design document should also include your analysis of the limitations of your design and where it could be improved.
Game Rules
Here are more details on the rules that must be implemented by your Game ADT:
Board Size
Traditionally, Gomoku is played on a 19×19 board. Your implementation must allow arbitrarily large square boards with minimum size 5×5. The length of one side of the board will always be an odd number.
Game Clock
The Gomoku game you implement will have a game clock for each player that keeps track of elapsed 'thinking time'. The game clock is initially set the same for both players. The white clock counts down when it is White's turn and the black clock counts down when its Black's turn. If a player runs out of time before moving, he automatically loses.
Initial Board Setup
In Gomoku, black technically moves first. However, black's first move must be in the exact middle of the board. Thus, when the game begins, Black first receives a previous move of Start. Black must respond with the coordinates of the center, which are next passed to the White player as the previous move coordinates.
Moves
A turn consists of a player placing one piece on an open board location. Once a piece is placed, it becomes the other player's turn. Once a piece is played, it is not removed from the board until the end of the game. Players continue to alternate turns until the game is over.
End of Game
The game ends when one player has 5 or more pieces in a contiguous row, either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. If a player's time has expired at the end of its move, the player loses. If the board is filled with pieces and no one has five in a row, the game is a draw.
Implementation
Getting started
PS6 requires that you install some more software and modify your existing SML installation. Installation instructions and files to download can be found here. Once you have followed the installation instructions, download one of the files below:

* Windows users click here
* Linux users click here
* SPARC users click here
(compiled on SunOS 5.8 Generic_108528-13 sun4u sparc SUNW,Ultra-5_10)
(if you don't know what this is don't worry about it)
* Other OS users click here

A few notes about the problem set download:

* The CM directory here is important. Do not delete any of the files that are there; you will not be able to use the sample AI's that we provide you with otherwise.
* Do not touch the file ourstuff.cm. Any files that you add to the project should be added to the file sources.cm.
* Do not copy any of the files that are in the file ourstuff.cm into the root directory (for example those that are in the src directory should not be put in the root directory).
* The files test-gui.sml and guigame-fn.sml cannot be compiled with CM. To compile them, after doing CM.make(), type

use "test-gui.sml"; use "guigame-fn.sml";

This will compile the files and allow you to use the code.
* If you are not running on an x86 system you will need to contact us to be able to use the sample AI's that we give you. If you don't care about that, either distribution should work fine (just take all the source files and compile those, while wiping the CM directory).

If you're interested in why these restrictions are necessary, drop by Hubert's office hours.
Types and Interfaces
Common Types

These common types are used both by the game.sig and the player.sig files, which will be discussed later on.

structure Types = struct

datatype color = BLACK | WHITE

(* The contents of a board location. NONE indicates
* that no piece exists at that location. *)
type boardLoc = color option

(* A coordinate (x,y) represents a location on the board.
* x is the horizontal axis and y is the vertical axis.
* Coordinates start at 0, so (0,0) is the upper-left
* corner of the board. *)
type coordinate = int * int

(* A move. Ordinarily just a Move(c) where a new piece
* is to be placed at c. "Human" tells the UI that it
* must get the move. "Start" is given to a player if
* the game has just started and it is the first to move *)
datatype move = Start | Move of coordinate | Human
end

Game ADT

The following is a suggested signature for implementation of the Game abstraction. It describes the state of an ongoing game, and provides operations that update that state with moves. It effectively serves as a "referee" that keeps track of the game, checks moves to ensure that they are legal, and decides which player has won.

signature GAME = sig

type color = Types.color
type boardLoc = Types.boardLoc
type coordinate = Types.coordinate

(* Human datatype to tell the UI that it must get the move from I/O
* Start datatype is given to a player if it is starting the game *)
type move = Types.move

type game

(* datatype indicating who has won, if its a draw or if it is
* still in progress *)
datatype winner = NoWinner | Win of color | Draw

(* Raised by step when a move is attempted after the game has ended *)
exception GameOver of winner

(* Raised by step when an invalid move is attempted *)
exception InvalidMove of coordinate

(* Gets value of location (x,y) on the board
* 1st argument is x, 2nd is y. returns NONE if nothing there.
* Checks that (x,y) is a a valid location. *)
val getLocation: coordinate * game -> boardLoc

(* Checks to see move is a valid move given the current game state *)
val validMove: move * game -> bool

(* newGame(n,t) returns a new game object with a n*n board. The board
* is initially empty. Each player has up to time t to finish the game
* and it is black's move. *)
val newGame: int * Time.time -> game

(* Takes in current game state, and the location of the next move
* and returns the new game state with the current move applied to it.
* Raises GameOver(p) if the game is already over. p should never be
* NoWinner.
* Raises InvalidMove(x,y) if the move is invalid. x,y are the
* coordinates of the failed move *)
val step: game * move -> game

(* returns the last move of the current game
* returns Start if the game passed in came directly from a call
* to newGame *)
val lastMove: game -> move

(* gets the winner of the game. Returns None if no one has won
* and it is not a Draw *)
val getWinner: game -> winner

(* gets the color of the player who plays next *)
val getNextPlayer: game -> color

(* gets the size of the board. Board is always square *)
val getBoardSize: game -> int

(* gets how much time left a current player has *)
val timeLeft: (game * color) -> Time.time
end
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PostSubject: Re: The Art Engine Room   Wed Jun 06, 2007 3:09 pm

If you wish, you may modify this signature; however you should have a good reason that you can describe in the design review and design document. If you do change the signature in a way that is not an extension, our sample AI's are not guaranteed to work with your code. Also, you are likely to break the text and graphical interface that we gave you, requiring compensating changes there.

AI Interface

Your implementation of the AI must satisfy the following signature:

signature PLAYER = sig

(* A player p is represented by a function. Given a previous
* move m and total remaining thinking time t, p(m,t) returns
* the next move of the player. *)
type player = Types.move * Time.time -> Types.move

(* getName() is the name of the player. It should be of the form
* <netid1>-<netid2>_AI for tournament submissions *)
val getName : unit -> string

(* createPlayer(c,n,t) creates a new player at color c that
* expects to play on an n x n board with total thinking
* time t. Checks: n is odd, n>=5, t>0. *)
val createPlayer: Types.color -> int -> Time.time -> player
end

You may not change this interface.

We have provided a sample AI that you can run your code against, as well as a Human interface to play with.

The sample AI's are 2 structures called RandomAI and StupidAI. They implement the PLAYER signature and you may use them in the same manner that you can use the Human structure. Neither AI provided is particularly good at playing Gomoku, but they at least provide a benchmark that you can compare against.

1. RandomAI : plays a random but valid move.
2. StupidAI : does a little searching to find a reasonable move.

Game User Interfaces
We have provided you with two user interfaces: a text-based user interface called TextUI, and a graphical user interface called GUI. These interfaces are both functorized with the following header:

functor TextGameFn (P_WHITE: PLAYER)
(P_BLACK: PLAYER) :>
sig val start : int * Time.time -> unit
end

To start a Text Game between two humans, execute the following commands:

- structure humans = TextGameFn (Human) (Human);
- humans.start(19,Time.fromSeconds(3600))

This starts a Text-based game with two human players, and gives them each a time limit of an hour (total game time will not exceed two hours). The same thing can be done with the GUI that is provided by using.

- use "guigame-fn.sml"; (* if you have not already done so *)
- structure humans = GUIGameFn (Human) (Human);
- humans.start(19,Time.fromSeconds(3600))

AI players can also be used; in fact, the functors take any structures that implement the PLAYER signature. The parentheses around the structure name are important. You may apply these functors to the two AI structures RandomAI and StupidAI in addition to your own.

While the UI we provide should be sufficient for testing purposes, the GUI lacks snazzy game graphics and skimps on user-friendly features. This is because TAs are busy people. As a karma exercise, you may wish to improve on the GUI we provide! If you are interested, read the details in the Graphical User Interface section of the assignment for help on how to get started with SML graphics.
The AI How-To

An AI ("artificial intelligence") is a module that takes a board configuration and returns a legal move. The AI can choose moves via a number of methods. We encourage you to use the alpha-beta search technique described in recitation, though this is not required.

CS312 Do-It-Yourself AI Construction Kit

Ingredients:

* Game Board representation
* Move Selection Technique: board->move list
* Board Evaluation Mechanism: board->int
* Board Search Depth: int

If we look at the current game board, all of our possible moves, all of our opponent's counter-moves, and so on, we are constructing a tree of possible board states. A good AI explores this game tree and choose a move that optimizes the worst-case board evaluation score (the minimax value of the current game board).

The first step is to choose a representation for the state of the game (in Gomoku, the board). The AI will be searching a tree in which every node is one of these states. For an effective AI, it is important that the board representation allow the search algorithm to be implemented efficiently. You should think carefully about what board data structure is the right choice.

Game search involves exploring the possible legal moves from a given board position. We want to choose the best of these moves. To evaluate these moves, however, we must consider all possible opponent counter-moves. We assume that the opponent will pick its best move and so we choose the worst of the opponent's possible moves as our worst case. Next we choose our best counter-counter-move. And so on, the evaluation continues down the tree, defining move quality recursively (when it's the opponents turn, we pick the least good move of all the options, when it's our turn we pick the best move) until we reach the desired search depth. At this point, we simply apply our board evaluation mechanism to evaluate all the leaf nodes. After we finish this, the recursion should unwind up the tree to yield the current desired move.

Exhaustive search is too slow, however. Consider Gomoku. There are easily 100 possible moves in any given position. If we want to search 4 moves deep, that's 1004 = 100,000,000 moves we have to evaluate. 100 million isn't a small number, even on modern computers. And depth-4 search means looking ahead just two moves, which isn't really enough to be a great Gomoku player. Thus, a good AI cannot waste time exhaustively searching all possible moves. There are ways to avoid this problem:

1. Don't consider all possible legal moves. Instead, write a move selector that identifies the N 'best' moves according to some criterion. The danger, of course, is that the move selector will miss the actual best move. You will want to think about some game-specific criteria for ignoring moves that are very unlikely to be good.
2. Use alpha-beta pruning to avoid searching. This doesn't require any special knowledge of the game. It will be discussed in recitation.

Both of these techniques can dramatically increase the depth to which the AI is able to search the game tree.

Next, an AI strategy is only as good as its board evaluation mechanism. First, your board evaluation needs to be smart. Think of how you evaluate the board when you look at it. Your AI will make moves to optimize board evaluation -- if your evaluation mechanism is wrong then the AI will make the wrong move. Secondly, the mechanism needs to be fast -- it has to be run on the leaves of the search tree. Its probably worth designing your board structure and evaluation mechanism together to optimize evaluation running time. Its probably better to have a simple mechanism that has the correct fundamental principles than a more complicated mechanism because you can search deeper with the simpler, faster evaluation system. You can play around with your AI by shifting strategy between the evaluation mechanism (you code the strategy) and the search depth (let the AI determine strategy by searching). We will talk about search algorithms in a week or so.

Finally, based on the move selection technique and board evaluation method, you want to choose the largest possible search depth that completes in a reasonable amount of time. If your AI tries to be too aggressive you'll run out of time and lose the game!

Strategy Tips

In developing your static evaluator, you'll probably want to play Gomoku a bit to get the feel of the game. Here are a number of simple things that you might want to consider when developing your AI:

* If you get to a position where there are 5 or more of some color in a row, it is either very good or very bad for your AI. If you can force the win, go for it! If your opponent has you trapped, don't despair. Its possible your enemy may overlook the winning sequence or not have a search as deep as yours. Instead of giving up, try to choose the least bad move.
* Your board evaluation method should depend on whose turn it is.
* If you get to a position where your opponent has 4 in a row, you need to block both ends somehow or win before your opponent's next move.
* Three in a row is also dangerous, especially if both ends are not blocked. If not blocked it allows for the formation of an unblocked 4 in a row.
* When choosing between seemingly equivalent defensive moves, try and pick the one that best helps your offense for when you next get the chance to make an aggressive move.
* Don't forget about the diagonal direction!
* The best way to win Gomoku games is with forks of multiple 3 or 4 in a rows.
* Don't forget that your AI must consider the amount of time you have to search. Similarly, you can try to force your opponent to run out of time.
* Think of AI move selection and board evaluation when you design your game board structure.
* Start simple. When simple works, add to it. It's hard to track down bugs in even the simplest of AI's because search algorithms have a way of hiding bugs. Test your AI carefully: for example, give the AI some canned scenarios in which you expect it to come up with a good move and see if it comes up with the move you expect.
* A little randomness is always fun and can throw off an opponent.
* There are many more search techniques that may be useful to you. For example, transposition tables and iterative deepening are both very effective ways to improve game search.

The Graphical User Interface

Although you are not required to do anything with the GUI, we figured some of you would be interested in how we are doing graphics. Feel free to extend the GUI in any which way you want. (Karma points for people doing cool stuff, and if that's not incentive enough, Jeff H. promises to buy the authors of the best GUI some 'soda').

We have seen that SML is a simple and elegant language. In PS 4 we also saw that we could create useful programs in SML. In this assignment we will that SML can be used to write a graphical program. Like any other modern language, SML can be used to create Windows (or X-Windows) applications.

We are supporting graphics in SML through a library called SmlTk. This library allows SML to connect to a TCL process to display graphics. TCL (pronounced "tickle") is a library written to produce a graphical user interface (GUI) using simple scripts. SmlTk provides a strongly typed functional SML interface to TCL.
Basics of GUI Programming

There are a number of user interface components commonly used for GUI programming and supported by SmlTk:

* Widgets: Buttons, Labels, Checkboxes, Text input fields, etc.
* Canvas: a specialized widget that support arbitrary graphical rendering of lines, circles, boxes, points, images etc.
* Windows: The main container for widgets and canvas items.

A GUI interacts with the rest of the application through event handlers (also called callbacks), which are functions that are called when there is a user-interface event: for example, a mouse click on a button, typing into a textbox, or closing a window. Each user interface component can generate its own events, and different event handlers may be associated with different events. The style of programming that results is called event-driven programming. The user must define the layout of the various Widgets in relation to each other. For a complete list of events and layout options, see the SmlTk manual.
Using SmlTk
Take a look at the test-gui.sml code. It defines a very simple GUI consisting of

* a label with the text "Hello world"
* a text box that changes the window title when the user presses Enter after typing into it
* a button that quits the program

Here are the highlights of the code:

val mainID = newWinId()
val entID1 = newWidgetId()

Generate unique ID's to identify the main window and the text field. These are required later to access these elements.

let
fun endInput _ =
changeTitle mainID (mkTitle(readTextAll entID1))
in
Entry{widId=entID1, packings=[], configs=[Width 20],
bindings=[BindEv(KeyPress "Return",endInput)]}
end

Creates a text-entry field with Width=20. It then binds the function endInput to an Enter key press. The function endInput calls the SmlTk function changeTitle for the window (identified by the windows Unique ID). The string inside the text-entry field is used converted to a title using the SmlTk function mkTitle and passed to changeTitle.

SmlTk.init();
startTcl [mkWindow enterwin];

Initializes SmlTk and then starts the GUI with a new window made from the parameters mentioned in enterwin.

Warm-up exercise for those interested in modifying the Gomoku GUI: modify the test GUI to make the label change its text when the mouse moves over it, and change back when the mouse moves out. Hint: Bind the events Enter and Leave. Use the setConf method for setting widget configurations.
GUI for Problem Set 6

We provided you with a GUI that works but isn't very useful. Try adding features to the GUI so that it is complete and user-friendly. Since this is an optional part of the problem set, you have complete freedom over the design and implementation of your GUI, but make sure it keeps the same interface with the rest of the game components (otherwise your GUI and game won't work with our testing system!) Make your changes by modifying the file guigame-fn.sml. If you're having trouble, talk to course staff. The following details should help you get started.

The board is rendered by drawing an array of small gif images of size 31×31 pixels. There are 9 possible types of positions depending on whether the gifs go in the interior of the board, at the board edges or at the corners:




For each color, there are 9 such gifs representing a filled location:

The whole board is made by positioning an appropriate number of these simple images inside a Canvas item:






Suggestions: The GUI provided to you currently just displays the game board and accepts user input (see guigame-fn.sml for explanations about how this is accomplished). However, it does not show whose move it is. It doesn't display if the game has already been won or not, and if so, who won it. The GUI also provides no feedback if the user clicks at an invalid location. Nor does it show how much time a player has left. You can find many more deficiencies in the GUI, and useful new features that might be added. Here are a few ideas:

* Different board appearances
* Highlighting the board at the location of the last move
* A help button which uses your AI to suggest a move to the human

GUI coding can be fun, so knock yourself out. Just remember it's optional and don't forget to implement the back end and AI by the due date!
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PostSubject: Re: The Art Engine Room   Wed Jun 06, 2007 3:51 pm

Figures of merit for detectors in digital radiography. II. Finite number of secondaries and structured backgrounds

Angel R. Pineda and Harrison H. Barrett
University of Arizona, Radiology Research Building 211, 1609 North Warren, Tucson, Arizona 85724

(Received 11 June 2002; accepted 16 October 2003; published 27 January 2004)

The current paradigm for evaluating detectors in digital radiography relies on Fourier methods. Fourier methods rely on a shift-invariant and statistically stationary description of the imaging system. The theoretical justification for the use of Fourier methods is based on a uniform background fluence and an infinite detector. In practice, the background fluence is not uniform and detector size is finite. We study the effect of stochastic blurring and structured backgrounds on the correlation between Fourier-based figures of merit and Hotelling detectability. A stochastic model of the blurring leads to behavior similar to what is observed by adding electronic noise to the deterministic blurring model. Background structure does away with the shift invariance. Anatomical variation makes the covariance matrix of the data less amenable to Fourier methods by introducing long-range correlations. It is desirable to have figures of merit that can account for all the sources of variation, some of which are not stationary. For such cases, we show that the commonly used figures of merit based on the discrete Fourier transform can provide an inaccurate estimate of Hotelling detectability. ©2004 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
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PostSubject: Re: The Art Engine Room   Wed Jun 06, 2007 4:22 pm

buisnessman during Civil War and his papers


Inventory of the G. W. F. Harper Papers, 1838-1921
Collection Number 313
unc seal
Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Collection Information
block Descriptive Summary
block Administrative Information
block Online Catalog Headings
block Biographical Note
block Collection Overview
plus Detailed Description of the Collection
minus Papers, 1838-1921.
block Related Collections


Contact Information:
Manuscripts Department
CB#3926, Wilson Library
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, NC 27514-8890
Phone: 919/962-1345
Fax: 919/962-3594
Email: mss@email.unc.edu
URL: http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/
Processed by
SHC Staff
Date Processed
1964
Encoded by
Linda Sellars
Date Encoded
February 2002
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